International Clinical and Medical Case Reports Journal (ISSN: 2832-5788) | Volume 1, Issue 9 | Research Article | Open Access

Physico-Chemical And Bacteriological Quality of Water Consumed and Public Perception of Socio-Economic And Environmental Factors Associated With Typhoid Fever Prevalence and Related Water Borne Diseases In Rural (Miti-Murhesa) and Urban (Kadutu) Health...

Théodore Munyuli*

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Institute of Higher Education in Medical Techniques, ISTM-Bukavu, Bukavu town, South-Kivu Province, eastern of DRCongo

*Correspondence to: Théodore Munyuli 

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A study on the quality of the water consumed and on the determinants of the prevalence of typhoid fever was carried out in two health zones (Kadutu and Miti-Murhesa) of the province of south Kivu from June to September 2021.The study aimed at contributing to the advancement of scientific knowledge that can be used in the control of water-borne disease crisis such as typhoid fever in rural areas of the DRCongo. The study carried out was of the analytical cross-sectional type with primary data collected from field using a semi-structured questionnaire. Water samples were collected and analyzed for bacteriological and physicochemical quality using standard procedures. The generalized linear model (GLM) with Gaussian identity model and or with a logarithmic link function, was applied to investigate socio-economic and environmental factors likely influencing the knowledge of respondents about the causes and health consequences of the current prevalence of typhoid fever in the health zones of Kadutu and Miti-Murhesa.

The results indicated that the greater majority of the respondents did not perceive the water they drink as possible source of diseases. In rural health zones, sanitary condition was generally poor, refuse disposal and toilet system still primitive. Most households from rural health zone do not treat the water they drink as they were using open and unprotected toilet systems, which Included open pit toilet, bush method, or use of lake/river banks. Urban communities with that had better social and economic facilities were less exposed to risks of typhoid fever, particularly during early rains of the rainy season.

There were significant differences (p<0.05) between the sites (health zone) as to the level of knowledge of the type of water consumed and its influence on the prevalence of typhoid fever. There was significant (P<0.05) variability in the values of the physico-chemical properties of the water consumed in the surveyed health zones, although values were in conformity with WHO standards for the Africa for potable water. Germs isolated in the water samples indicated bacterial pollution of water consumed by the public in the two health zones. The causative germ of typhoid fever was found being influenced by the sources where the samples were collected. In the Kadutu health zone, the level of knowledge of respondents of the determinants of the prevalence of the typhoid fever was positively influenced by the age (GLM : Z= 3.33, P<0.001), negatively influenced by the type of health zone where the respondent lived (GLM : Z= -4.94, P<0.001), the respondent’s neighborhood of residence environment (GLM : Z= -3.78, P<0.001), the sex (GLM : Z= -3.53, P<0.001), the level of study (GLM : Z= -3.69, P<0.05), and to the fact that the respondent does or not wash the containers (GLM : Z= -4.45, P<0.001).. In the Miti-Murhesa health zone, the perception of the factors that determine the prevalence of typhoid fever was reported for being influenced negatively by whether or not to consume the food prepared a day before (GLM : Z= -4.32, P<0.05), and positively influenced by the civil status (GLM : Z= 2.11, P<0.05), the type of water consumed (GLM : Z= 2.82, P<0.001), the type of treatment applied to the drinking water (GLM : Z= 3.20, P<0.001). Overall, the result showed that the proposed water by the national water corporation company (REGIDESO) for human consumption was in the process of degradation. The results showed that the mean values recorded for physico-chemical parameters among the domestic water sources were within stipulated limits of WHO for safe drinking water, but not within REGIDESO standards. Due to the levels of microbes in the water, the water quality used by the population can be regarded as of poor quality. Thus, important measures should be taken by the health authorities to slow down the current process on order to reduce the future emergency and burden of the of water-borne diseases in rural and urban areas of South-Kivu, eastern DRCongo.


Potable water quality; Water-borne diseases; Urban; Rural; Health; Typhoid fever; Eastern DRCongo


Théodore Munyuli, Justin Ombeni, Bienfait Bashi Mushagalusa, Annuarite Musoda Kurhabe. Typhoid Fever Prevalence and Related Water Borne Diseases In Rural (Miti-Murhesa) and Urban (Kadutu) Health Zones Of South-Kivu Province, Eastern of Drcongo.Int Clinc Med Case Rep Jour. 2022;1(9):1-94.