Annals of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery (ISSN 2835-7132) | Volume 2, Issue 2 | Research Article | Open Access

Advances in Pediatric Airway Simulation Training: A Review of Current Instructional Methods

Calista L. Dominy*

Department of Otolaryngology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, USA

*Correspondence to: Calista L. Dominy 

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Aims: Simulation in creates an educational environment to practice techniques and work through clinical scenarios. Endoscopic management of the pediatric airway is high acuity and risk, but low frequency, thus serving as an ideal candidate for simulation training. The goal of this study was to assess the state of resident simulation training in management of the pediatric airway.

Methods: A literature review was performed through PubMED, with the following terms queried: [pediatric airway simulation], [simulation AND airway management], [(Virtual Reality OR Augmented Reality) AND pediatric airway], [simulation training AND pediatric otolaryngology]. 34 studies were selected and evaluated by 2 independent reviewers, with 9 deemed appropriate for further review based on relevance to pediatric airway simulation.

Results: Pediatric airway management training options include virtual and augmented reality simulators, which are the most accessible but least realistic for tactile skills. Physical models include animal models, isolated laryngeal models, and full mannequin simulators. These are more expensive, less mobile, and require more extensive assembly than virtual models. Three dimensional (3D)-printed physical models are another option not yet widely used. Situational simulation-based training is a method that combines traditional immersive didactic methods with recent advancements in simulation technology.

Conclusions: Current pediatric airway simulation options lack soft tissue models with anatomical or procedural specificity. 3D-printing pediatric airway simulators could make physical models more accessible and less expensive for residency programs to implement. An increase in access to teaching modalities that combine in-person didactics with tactile simulation models can potentially improve pediatric airway management training.


Pediatric airway simulation; Resident education; Virtual reality; 3D-printing


Calista L. Dominy, Margaret Downes, Orli Weiss, Grace Rabinowitz, Sida Chen, Aldo Londino.Advances in Pediatric Airway Simulation Training: A Review of Current Instructional Methods. Annal of Otol Head and Neck Surg. 2023;2(2):1-13.