Annals of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery (ISSN 2835-7132) | Volume 2, Issue 3 | Review Article | Open Access

Molecular Genetics of Thyroid Cancer and their Influence in the Diagnosis and Management of this Disease

Rodrigo Arrangoiz*

Division of Surgical Oncology at Mount Sinai Medical Center, Miami, Florida

*Correspondence to: Rodrigo Arrangoiz 

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The majority of thyroid neoplasms originate from the thyroid epithelial follicular cells, while 3% to 5% of neoplasms arise from the C cells or parafollicular cells. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), which derives from these follicular cells, includes papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), oncocytic cell carcinoma (formerly known as Hürthle Cell Carcinoma/OCC), poorly differentiated carcinoma (insular carcinoma), and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ACC/undifferentiated). These thyroid tumors comprise the majority, more than 90% of the cases, of all thyroid neoplasms. Of all these subtypes, ATC is the rarest and is characterized by its extremely poor prognosis. Likewise, poorly differentiated carcinoma is characterized by its aggressive behavior and its unfavorable prognosis. Recent advances in our comprehension of the molecular genetics of thyroid cancer have been made by identification of targetable genetic alterations in its pathogenesis. This paper will undergo an extensive review of molecular pathways that lead to the development of thyroid cancer, their implications in the diagnosis, surgical management, and adjuvant treatment.


Thyroid Cancer, Thyroid Neoplasms, Molecular Genetics of Thyroid Cancer


Rodrigo Arrangoiz, Fernando Cordera, Juan Paramo.Molecular Genetics of Thyroid Cancer and their Effect in the Diagnosis and Management. Annal of Otol Head and Neck Surg. 2023;2(3):1-22.